European Center for the Development of Democracy (ECDD) Reports Collection

European Center for the Development of Democracy (ECDD) Reports Collection

Introduction

The escalation of interethnic and inter-religious tensions, the growing influence of Radical Rights on European politics, the increase in hate crime – all of these trends mark everyday reality but also pose a serious challenge to modern Europe.

Meanwhile, the problem already requires not only discussion, but also the development of serious recommendations – both for each individual country and for Europe as a whole, taking into account its heterogeneity and different socio-economic and political conditions.

To this end, five years ago, the European Center for the Development of Democracy (Latvia) prepared the first analytical Report “Xenophobia, radicalism and hate crimes in Europe 2014-15”. The report was based on the monitoring of the results of radical manifestations, xenophobia and state policy towards minorities and radical organizations in 22 European countries, including some of the post-Soviet countries – Russia, Ukraine and Moldova.

This monitoring was carried out as a part of our other project – a collection of documentary evidence of Radicalism called “The White Papers of Hate”, which was published in 2012-2015, but its materials were an ideal basis for a new analytical work.

The new Pan-European Report was prepared on the basis of a unified methodology, compiled in collaboration with the Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology of the Russian Academy of Sciences and, above all, with Dr. Victor Shnirelman. It covered the most versatile aspects – the legislative framework, law enforcement practice, the situation with xenophobia, according to opinion polls, statistics on hate crime, rhetoric of governments representatives regarding minorities and radicals, an overview of the activities of radical organizations and anti-fascist groups, etc.

Over the years, three more similar reports have been prepared. The scope of work has been expanded. Now, these Pan-European reports are based not only on monitoring materials, but also on similar analytical studies in the field of radicalism in individual European countries, prepared by an international team of researchers. Among them are the director of the Centre for Analysis of the Radical Right (CARR) Prof. Matthew Feldman (UK), Dr. William Allchorn (UK), CARR Deputy Director, Visiting Policy Lecturer, University of Leeds Trinity, Dr. Jean-Yves Camus, Researcher of the Institute for International Strategic Studies (IRIS) in Paris, Dr. Ana-Juaneta Garcia, Researcher of the Institut Barcelona d’Estdis Internacionals (IBEI) (Spain), Dr. Anna Castriotta, Research Fellow at Northampton University, Dr. Ildiko Barna, professor of the Eötvös Loránd University (ELTE) (Budapest), and many others.

It is important that the result of each of these Reports was the recommendations of experts, aimed at normalizing interethnic and inter-religious relations in the monitoring countries and creating conditions of zero tolerance for radicals.

It can also be added that during this period, the research group, together with other researchers of Radicalism and Xenophobia in Europe, met three times at our conference “International Expert Forum on Tolerance ‘Xenophobia and European Radicalism. Global Challenges'” (which met twice in Riga and once in Athens) in order to personally make their reports and discuss current aspects of this problem.

It was an interesting period in our lives and we intend to continue cooperation and study the problems of tolerance further.

I am grateful to our partners from the Centre for Analysis of the Radical Right for expressing a desire to publish our work on the CARR website and I hope that our cooperation will continue.

Dr. Valery Engel,

President of the European Center for the Development of Democracy

THE REPORTS

THE WHITE PAPERS OF HATE (SERIES)

The White Papers of Hate 2012 (2014)

White Papers of Hate is a fundamental research conducted by the International Human Rights
Movement World Without Nazism in collaboration with Institute of Ethnology and
Anthropology of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Berlin Research Centre on Anti-
Semitism of the Technical University of Berlin (Germany). Research was based on the
monitoring of manifestations of xenophobia, neo-Nazism and radical nationalism, conducted by
HRM World Without Nazism across 18 European countries in 2012. Covers Greece, Latvia,
Ukraine, Estonia, Moldova, Lithuania, United Kingdom, Hungary, France, Russia, Bulgaria,
Romania, Czech Republic, Italy, Finland, Germany, Albania, and Croatia.

The White Papers of Hate 2014 (2014)

This book represents the second study into manifestations of xenophobia, neo-Nazism and
radical nationalism in Europe. Covers Greece, Latvia, Ukraine, Estonia, Moldova, Lithuania,
United Kingdom, Hungary, France, Russia, Bulgaria, Romania, Poland, Czech Republic, Italy,
Finland, Germany, Albania, and Croatia.

The White Papers of Hate 2015 (2015)

This third edition of White Papers of Hate, conducted annually by the International Human
Rights Movement “World Without Nazism,” covers the year 2014. Covers Ukraine, Latvia,
Italy, Estonia, Hungary, Greece, United Kingdom, France, Lithuania, Bulgaria, Moldova,
Poland, Russia, Romania, Germany, Czech Republic, Finland, Croatia, Ireland, Slovakia, and
Albania.

XENOPHOBIA, RADICALISM AND HATE CRIME IN EUROPE (SERIES)

Xenophobia, Radicalism and Hate Crime in Europe 2015 (2016)

The book analyses major manifestations of hatred in the European space in 2015, as well as
factors that influenced the demand for radicalism in society. Special attention was paid to how
European governments respond to modern challenges. Analysis is given on the basis of 8 EU
countries (France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland and the United
Kingdom), as well as Russia and Ukraine, as countries who play a significant role in political
and economic processes in Europe.

Xenophobia, Radicalism and Hate Crime in Europe. Annual Report 2016 (2017)

The book is an annual report on major manifestations of hatred in the European space in 2016,
composed by key experts of different countries of the world. The report analyzes factors that
influenced the demand for radicalism in society, xenophobia and racism. It also discusses
statistics on hate crimes. Special attention was paid to how European governments respond to
modern challenges. Analysis is given on the basis of 8 EU countries (France, Germany, Greece,
Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland and the United Kingdom), as well as Russia and
Ukraine, as countries who play a significant role in political and economic processes in Europe.

Xenophobia, Radicalism, and Hate Crime in Europe. Annual Report 2018 (2018)

This book is another annual report on major manifestations of hate in the European space in
2017-2018. Prepared by leading experts from different countries, the report analyzes various
factors that trigger the formation of a public demand for radicalism and that lead to the
manifestations of xenophobia and racism. The report also discusses statistics on hate crime. A
separate subject of research is the prerequisites of xenophobia and the role of political parties and
groups in the formation of a public demand for radicalism. The analysis focuses on 13 countries
of the EU – namely, Austria, Great Britain, Hungary, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Spain, Italy,
Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia, Croatia, and France, – as well as on two non-EU countries, which
greatly influence political and economic processes in Europe – Russia and Ukraine.

Contemporary Far-Rights: Right Radicalism in Europe: Ideology, Social Basis, Prospects. Edited
by Valery Engel. Moscow: Moscow Institute of Psychoanalysis, 2018.

This report is the result of the work of an international team of experts from ten European
countries. The report answers the questions of what the social basis of European right wing
radicalism is, and what the objective prerequisites and possible directions for its development
are. In addition, the authors answer the questions of what stays behind the ideology of modern
radicalism, what the sources of funding for right-wing radical organizations are, and who their
leaders are. Significant part of information is introduced for the first time.
Editor: Dr. Valery Engel. Authors: Dr. Valery Engel (general analytics), Dr. Jean-Yves Camus
(France), Professor Matthew Feldman (UK), Dr. William Allchorn (UK), Dr. Anna Castriota
(Italy), Dr. Ildikó Barna (Hungary), Bulcsú Hunyadi (Hungary), Dr. Vanja Ljujic (Netherlands),
Tika Pranvera (Greece), Katarzyna du Val (Poland), Dr. Semen Charny (Russia), Dr. Dmitry
Stratievsky (Germany), Ruslan Bortnik (Ukraine), Dr. Alex Carter (UK).

COUNTRY REPORTS (2017)

AUSTRIA
Markus Rheindorf, The Problem of Minorities in Austria. Legislation, enforcement, and Radical
groups.
Contents: 1. Legislation. 2. Combating Hate crime. 3. Law enforcement practices affecting
minorities. 4. Position of immigrants. 5. Society’s attitude towards immigrants, foreign nationals
and various ethnic minorities. 6. Hate crime. 7. Glorification of German National Socialism and
collaborators of the Nazi Germany. 8. Persecution of human rights activists. 9. Conclusions for
the period. Recommendations.

CROATIA
Ana Ljubojeviæ, Xenophobia, Radicalism and Hate Crime in Croatia (2017)
Contents: Changes in legislation. National Strategies and Action Plans. Law enforcement
practices. Specific cases. Society’s attitude towards immigrants, foreign nationals and various
ethnic minorities. Recommendations.

FRANCE
Jean-Yves Camus, France. Xenophobia and Radicalism, 2017
Contents: Legislation. The Law Enforcement Practice. Rhetoric. The public opinion towards
minorities. Radicals. Hate Crime. Interethnic or religious clashes. Sports-related Xenophobia.
The cases of glorification of Nazism or Nazi collaborators. Conclusion. General
recommendations for adjustments to the legal framework. General recommendations for the
executive bodies in the field of enforcement of law and human rights. General recommendations
to improve the situation.

GREECE
Pranvera Tika, Radicalism and Xenophobia in Greece, 2017
Contents: 1: Legislation. Legal framework Background. 2. Law enforcement practices affecting
minorities. 3. Manifestations of Xenophobia and hate speech among the executive and legislative
powers. 4. Statements against Xenophobia and hate speech among the executive and legislative
powers. 5. Position of immigrants. 6. Society's attitude towards immigrants, foreign nationals
and various ethnic minorities. 7. Incitement to ethnic and religious hatred. 8. Radical nationalist
groups and parties. 9. Hate crime. 10. Glorification of German National Socialism and
collaborators of the Nazi Germany. 12. Persecution of human rights activists. Recommendations.

HUNGARY
Ildikó Barna, Bulcsú Hunyadi, Patrik Szicherle and Farah Rasmi, Report on Xenophobia,
Radicalism and Hate Crime in Hungary in 2017
Contents: 1. Changes in Legislation Affecting the Interests of Minorities in 2017. 2. Law
Enforcement Practices Affecting Minorities in 2017. 3. The Position of Immigrants in Hungary
in 2017. 4. Manifestations of Xenophobia and Hate Speech among the Executive and Legislative
Powers. 5. Statements Against Xenophobia and Radical Nationalism among Government
Representatives and Prominent Political Activists. 6. The Attitude of the Hungarian Society
Towards Immigrants, Foreign Nationals and Various Ethnic and Religious Minorities. 7. Radical
Nationalist Groups and Parties. 8. Public Actions of Extremists and Radical Nationalists,
Including among Sports Fans. 9. Hate Crimes and Incidents. 10. Glorification of German
National Socialism and Collaborators of Nazi Germany. 11. Persecution of Human Rights
Activists. 12. Conclusions. 13. Recommendations.

IRELAND
William Allchorn, Xenophobia and Radicalism in Ireland (2017)
Contents: 1. Changes in Legalisation. 2. Law enforcement practices. 3. Rhetoric of Irish
Government Officials in 2017 towards Minorities. 4. Position of immigrants in the country
during the monitored period. 5. Society’s attitude towards immigrants, foreign nationals and
various ethnic minorities. 6. Radical Nationalist Groups and Parties. 7. Xenophobia amongst
Sports Fans. 8. Hate Crime. 9. Glorification of German National Socialism and collaborators of
the Nazi Germany. 10. Human Rights in Ireland. 11. Conclusions for the period. 12.
Recommendations.

ITALY
Anna Castriota, Report on Xenophobia, Racism & Rise of the Far-Right in ITALY. Year: 2017
Contents: 1. Legislation. 2. Law enforcement practices affecting minorities. 3. Manifestations of
Xenophobia among the Executive and Legislative Powers. 4. Statements against Xenophobia and
Radical Nationalism among Government Representatives and Prominent Political Activists. 5.
Position of the Immigrants in the Country in the Monitored Period. 6. Society’s Attitude towards
Immigrants, Foreign nationals and Various Ethnic Minorities. 7. Incitement to Ethnic and
Religious Hatred. 8. Radical Nationalist Groups and Parties. 9. Public Actions of Extremists and
Radical Nationalists Including Sport Fans. 10. Hate Crime. 11. Glorification of German National
Socialism and Collaborators of Nazi Germany. 12. Persecution of Human Rights Activists. 13.
Conclusion. Recommendations.

THE NETHERLANDS
Vanja Ljujic, Report of Xenophobia and Radical nationalism in Netherlands (2017)
Contents: 1. Legislation. 2. Law enforcement practices affecting minorities. 3. Manifestations of
xenophobia and hate speech among the executive and legislative powers. 4. Statements against
xenophobia and radical nationalism among government representatives and prominent political
activists. 5. Position of immigrants in the country. 6. Society’s attitude towards immigrants,
foreign nationals and various ethnic minorities. 7. Neonazi and far-right manifestations. 8.
Radical nationalist groups and parties. 9. Hate crime. 10. Holocaust denial. 11. Criminal
prosecution of veterans, partisans of the anti-Hitler coalition and antifascists. Conclusions.
Recommendations

POLAND
Katarzyna du Vall, Report on Xenophobia, Radical Nationalism and Expressions of Hatred in
2017 – Poland
Contents: 1. Changes in legislation (positive and negative) which affected the interests of
minorities during the monitored period. 2. Law enforcement practices affecting minorities during
the monitored period. 3. Manifestations of xenophobia and hate speech among the executive and
legislative powers. 4. Statements against xenophobia and radical nationalism among government
representatives and prominent political activists. 5. Position of immigrants in the country during
the monitored period. 6. Society’s attitude towards immigrants, foreign nationals and various
ethnic minorities. 7. Incitement to ethnic and religious hatred. 8. Radical nationalist groups and
parties. 9. Public actions of extremists and radical nationalists, including among sports fans. 10.
Hate crime (statistics and descriptions), law enforcement actions, criminal cases, attacks
motivated by racism, violence and terror (data from government and NGOs). 11. Glorification of
German National Socialism and collaborators of the Nazi Germany. 12. Persecution of human
rights activists. 13. Conclusions for the period. 14. Recommendations.

RUSSIA
Valery Engel and Samuel Wolfson, Xenophobia and Radicalism in Russia, 2017-18. What
Changed?
Contents: Legislation. Discriminatory practices. Xenophobia. Radicals. Hate Crime. Conclusion.

SPAIN
Ana García Juanatey and Bettina Steible, The Problems of Tolerance in Spain (2017)
Summary: Dr. Ana G. Juanatey and Dr. Bettina Steible are the authors of the Report about the Xenophobia
and Radicalism in Spain (2017). In their article they highlighted that during the last decades,
Spain has developed a legal and policy framework regarding minority rights and protection
generally consistent with international norms. Moreover, there have been relevant recent legal
and policy efforts revolving around the fight against hate crime.
Contents: 1. Legislation. 2. Law enforcement practices affecting minorities during the monitored
period. 3. Manifestations of Xenophobia and hate speech among the executive and legislative
powers. 4. Statements against Xenophobia and Radical nationalism among government
representatives and prominent political activists. 5. Position of immigrants in the country. 6.
Society’s attitude towards immigrants, foreign nationals and various ethnic minorities. 7.
Incitement to ethnic and religious hatred. 8. Radical nationalist groups and parties. 9. Public
actions of extremists and radical nationalists, including among sports fans. 10. Hate crime. 11.
Glorification of German National Socialism and collaborators of the Nazi Germany. 12.
Persecution of human rights activists. 13. Conclusions for the period. 14. Recommendations.

UK
William Allchorn and Matthew Feldman, Xenophobia and Radicalism in the UK (2017)
Contents: 1. Overview of Legislation Protecting Minorities. 2. Law enforcement procedures. 3.
Rhetoric in Britain toward minorities. 4. Position of immigrants. 5. Social attitudes towards
immigrants, foreign nationals and various ethnic minorities. 6. Radical Groups and Parties. 7.
Xenophobia amongst Sports Fans. 8. Hate Crime. 9. Glorification of Nazism. 10. Human Rights
in Britain. 11. Conclusions. 12. Recommendations.

UKRAINE
Ruslan Bortnik and Maxim Semenov, Xenophobia, Radical Nationalism and Hate Speech in
2017-18 in Ukraine
Contents: 2. Law enforcement practices. 3. Xenophobia and Hatred Among Government
Representatives. 4. Anti-xenophobic rhetoric of politicians. 5. The State of Immigrants. 6.
Societal Attitudes toward Immigrants, Foreigners, and Various Ethnic Minorities. 7. Incitement
of Ethnic and Religious Hatred. 8. Radical Nationalist Groups and Parties. 9. Socially Dangerous
Manifestations. 10. Hate Crimes. 11. The Glorification of German National Socialism and of
Nazi Collaborators. 12. Harassment of Human Rights Activists. Conclusion. Recommendations.